ÉCLAIRE Workpackage Information
This page provides information on the objectives of each workpackage in ÉCLAIRE - follow the links below.
The aim of the WP is to make field flux measurements across the ÉCLAIRE flux network and during campaigns, to provide targeted high-quality data to derive mechanistic parameterisations of biosphere/atmosphere exchange in response to environmental drivers, utilising the natural climate variability at and between sites. The specific objectives are:
1. To obtain 15 months of high temporal resolution flux data of key trace compounds (O3, NO, CO2, H2O) across a 9-site European flux network for the study of fluxes in relation to climatic drivers, using changing meteorological conditions at the sites as a proxy for climate.
2. To study the exchange of additional compounds (NH3, NOx, VOCs) through synchronised intensive measurement periods across the 9-site flux network, in relation to meteorological drivers, and to provide a test database for the evaluation of European chemical transport models.
3. To quantify the effect of aerosols on gross primary productivity through modulating in-canopy light levels for three forest ecosystems.
4. To quantify the importance of in-canopy chemical transformations on the deposition mechanism and effective emission of biogenic compounds into the atmosphere, through an integrated intensive measurement campaign above/within a polluted forest.
5. To make targeted measurements of NH3 exchange with Mediterranean semi-natural vegetation during distinct growth phases (active vs. dormant).
The aim of this work package is the study and quantification of key emission mechanisms to provide targeted data that can be used to derive parameterisations of the emission processes in WP1.3.
1. To obtain response curves of soil and litter emissions to meteorological drivers (temperature, moisture) for CO2, CH4, O3, N2O, NO, NO2 and NH3 across a wide range of soils.
2. To provide data on NO emissions after rewetting events as a basis to improve the mechanistic understanding and predictive capability, through novel laboratory experiments.
3. To quantify VOC emission responses under combined environmental change scenarios and develop a process understanding of the controls.
4. To investigate the effect of stresses (drought, heat) on BVOC emissions and the impact on O3 deposition and formation.
5. To quantify deposition rates of VOCs and their controls.
The aim of this work package is to provide improved parameterisations of biogenic and agricultural emissions to the modellers which include a robust response to climatic conditions that are predicted to change in the future. The individual objectives are:
1. To improve the climate response characteristics of NH3 emission models for agricultural sources and vegetation,
2. To improve the climate response characteristics of soil NO emission models,
3. To improve European BVOC emission models and their response to meteorological drivers and stresses
The general aim of this work package is to improve the description of surface/ atmosphere exchange processes for atmospheric pollutants under variable climatic conditions. These parameterisations will be developed for incorporation into European-scale chemistry and transport models (CTM) in Component 2 and used in the derivation of dose-response relationships in Component 3. This information will also be used to estimate atmospheric N inputs and O3 deposition for the ecosystems being investigated at the effect study sites in Component 3. The effect of chemical- and gas-aerosol transformations that occur near and within plant canopies will also be investigated in relation to emission, deposition and bi-directional exchange for each of the pollutants considered. The interplay between substrate scale emissions and deposition and chemical- and gas-aerosol transformations result in the occurrence of bi-directional exchange at the canopy scale. Specific objectives include:
1. To improve surface exchange routines for the main reactive inorganic nitrogen (Nr) compounds (NH3, HNO3, NO2, NH4+, NO3-) and their response to changes in climate and surface chemistry.
2. To improve the parameterisation of O3 dry deposition in relation to environmental drivers, and its partitioning btween stomatal and non-stomatal pathways. The effects of CO2 and O3 on stomatal functioning and therefore on the uptake of both gases will also be considered.
3. To estimate the dry deposition of O3 and the total atmospheric Nr inputs at the effects study sites of Component 3 using multi-layer inferential modelling and monitored air concentrations/wet deposition at the sites.
4. To improve a multi-layer bi-directional exchange and chemistry model, which accounts for in-canopy interactions between emissions, deposition, chemistry and turbulent transport and is suitable for incorporation into CTMs (Component 2), by coupling gas phase to aerosol phase chemical processes within the canopy.
1. To assess our current understanding of ozone and other air pollution trends, based on knowledge acquired within the UNECE TF HTAP, work for IPCC-AR5 and other projects, with a focus on the inflow regions of Europe.
2. To evaluate the transport of atmospheric pollutants (ozone and precursors, aerosols) into Europe, evaluate the relative contributions of long-range-transported and European pollution on atmospheric composition and deposition to the ecosystems in Europe and in other regions, and provide a range of chemical boundary conditions to regional models within ÉCLAIRE (WP7), taking into account changes in global anthropogenic and natural emissions under current and future climate change conditions.
3. To examine the relative contributions and impacts on air pollution of future biogenic and soil and fire emissions produced in WP15 of ozone and aerosol precursors on European pollutants levels and their export to the hemispheric and large scale atmosphere.
The aim of WP6 is to provide emission patterns for model experiments on European and global scale (see WPs 7,13,14), with a focus on terrestrial biogenic and pyrogenic emissions, and to provide improved temporal resolution of non-agricultural anthropogenic emissions. A select number of new modelling analyses are specifically assigned to incorporate ÉCLAIRE new process understanding emerging from Component 1. Specifically, the objectives are:
1. To quantify how trace gas emissions from natural, semi-natural, and agricultural ecosystems vary in response to interactions of weather and climate, atmospheric CO2 burden and N deposition, vegetation and soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and land use/land cover change
2. To provide improved temporal dis-aggregation of non-ecosystem, anthropogenic European (pollutant emission patterns for selected source sectors.
The aim of this WP is to provide maps of O3-damage metrics and N-deposition over Europe, for current and future scenarios, as inputs to the ecological response and effects packages (C3 and C4) and to integrated assessment modelling (C5). Activities ranging from global to local scale, and linking meteorological, chemical and ecological models will interact with each other and be merged to fulfil these objectives. In particular, new process understanding of biosphere-atmosphere exchange and changes associated with increased CO2 levels and future climate will be incorporated into CTMs. A small ensemble of CTMs and regional climate-model results (Table 1.1) will be used to illustrate the robustness and uncertainty of the AQ metrics, in current and future scenarios. Model developments and provision of results will be continuous, in order to make best use of C1 updates at any given time, but also to provide provisional data to C3-C5 as early as possible.
1. To map current air pollution metrics (APMs, mainly ozone damage indicators, POD & AOTx, and N-deposition) using a small ensemble of CTMs, in order to provide a best-estimate and uncertainty range on vegetation effects metrics.
2. To implement on the European scale new modules for stomatal uptake, in-canopy-chemistry, and emissions and sub-grid effects into the EMEP chemical transport model, able to take account of changes in CO2, N deposition, BVOC emissions and climate over coming decades.
3. To estimate changes in APMs to specific ecosystems up to year 2030 and 2050, accounting for climate-changed induced changes in meteorology, vegetation, and biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes.
The aim of WP8 is to develop a better scientific understanding of the air pollution and climate change relationships at regional/local/landscape-scale and sub-grid approaches for inclusion in large-scale models that enable a good representation of the multitude of processes that play a role on smaller scales (e.g., landscape-scale). By doing this, large-scale concentration and deposition patterns will better represent the local-scale interactions and provide more relevant input, e.g., for European scenario studies that involve one or more of the affected parameters. The objectives are:
1. To synthesize the available knowledge on local interactions in relation to climate and air quality, as well as the way this knowledge is included in local-scale atmosphere-biosphere modelling systems;
2. To analyse the sensitivity of the landscape scale effects on changing pollutant fluxes, especially as affected by climate change;
3. To include local/landscape-scale effects of climate change and air pollution interactions into large scale/European scale models by means of sub-grid representation of the most important processes.
1. To conduct a pan-European data mining exercise compiling data from previous survey, field-scale manipulation and controlled exposure experiments on air pollution impacts on ecosystem function and services, including interactions with other drivers such as climate change
2. To conduct a meta-analysis on the compiled data to provide a priority analysis for the modelers of the most important effects and associated processes
3. To analyse the data to develop a database of response-relationships for key ecosystem processes, functions and services to air pollutants (singly, and where available, in combination) including the influence of climate change, for use in activities WP12 and WP13.
4. To identify key knowledge gaps that can be filled by experimentation in WP10 and WP11.
1. To conduct relevant field-scale and controlled-exposure experiments on impacts of air pollution components on plant and ecosystem processes including interactions with climate change.
2. To use these experiments to quantify impacts of air pollution, in particular ozone and nitrogen components on key ecosystem processes, greenhouse gas exchange and ecosystem carbon balances
3. To provide inputs for developments and parameterization for modeling (WP13).
The aim of this WP is to conduct studies on three novel concepts in order to establish new empirical relationships for vegetation-air pollution interactions needed to establish novel thresholds (WP12) and ecological modelling (WP13). The specific objectives are:
1. To quantify how climate change, including increasing background ozone concentration will enhance greenhouse gas and NO release and exacerbate the threat to vegetation caused by dry or wet N deposition, including the distinction between oxidized (NOy) and reduced (NHx) nitrogen forms.
2. To assess if BVOC emissions from vegetation will increase the potential for O3 and NOx uptake by plants, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, leading to improved antioxidant properties and reduced emission of other stress-induced, reactive BVOC (e.g., LOX compounds).
3. To demonstrate if hygroscopic particles accumulating on leaves from aerosol and trace gas deposition may attract water and lead to enhanced transpiration and reduced drought tolerance.
The aim of this WP is to use the improved DO3SE_C model (WP3) and other empirical relationships and models (including new conceptual models) to synthesise data collated from the data mining activities (WP9) and the ÉCLAIRE experimental effects studies (WP10). This data synthesis will provide an improved understanding of vegetation based processes that relate pollutant deposition and uptake to plant responses that will be used to derive new dose-response relationships from which novel thresholds can be defined and incorporated into ecosystem based modelling approaches (WP12) to aid in the assessment of regional scale impacts of air pollution (Component 5). The specific objectives are:
1. To define pollutant-response relationships relevant for ecosystem service evaluation
2. To define intermediate plant processes that relate pollutant deposition and uptake to plant responses
3. To apply the DO3SE_C model to simulate deposition and uptake for key ÉCLAIRE experimental effects studies
4. To develop and apply other necessary conceptual and quantitative modelling frameworks as a basis for investigating dose response relationships (especially relevant for the novel interactions addressed under WP11)
5. To analyse these data to develop new dose-response relationships and novel thresholds
1. To develop a model describing the combined effects of O3, other atmospheric pollutants and climate on plant CO2 uptake, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and C sequestration in soil and vegetation, suitable for linking to existing plant-soil biogeochemistry models.
2. To develop existing dynamic vegetation models to better simulate the impacts of different air pollutants on plant growth and competition, and feedbacks on ecosystem carbon cycling.
3. To incorporate CH4 and N2O, as well as dissolved C and N losses, into biogeochemistry models for relevant ecosystems.
4. To integrate models in order to simulate the combined response of soils and vegetation to N, S and O3 exposure, diffuse radiation and climate change, suitable for application at a range of scales and for addressing a range of ecosystem impacts such as changes in C sequestration, vegetation diversity.
5. To undertake parallel testing of models with different process descriptions and levels of complexity against detailed data from experiments
6. To use the final tested models for prediction of future ecosystem responses to air pollution and climate change at a site level, and to deliver models for regional scale application in C4.
The objectives of WP14 are:
1. To further develop dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and dynamic soil vegetation models (DSVMs) by including interacting effects of nitrogen, ozone and climate on modelled ecosystem productivity
2. To link the DGVMs and DSVMs to large scale European databases on meteorology, deposition, air quality, soils and vegetation.
3. To assess the effects of combined air pollution and climate change scenarios on productivity and ecosystem C/GHG balance for forests, semi-natural and agricultural systems.
The objectives for this WP are
1. To further develop a plant species diversity model EUMOVE that links plant species occurrence in Europe to atmospheric deposition and climate.
2. To couple updated (see WP14) dynamic soil vegetation models (DSVM) to EUMOVE and link the coupled model to large scale European databases on meteorology, deposition, air quality, soils and vegetation.
3. To forecast future changes in soil quality and plant species diversity under different air pollution and climate scenarios (same as under WP14) for forests and semi-natural systems.
The aims for this WP are:
1. To map model-based climate dependent critical nitrogen thresholds, based on criteria for impacts on plant species diversity and accounting for differences in NOx and NHy, and their exceedances.
2. To map model-based critical thresholds for O3 uptake, based on criteria for impacts on productivity, and their exceedances.
3. To consider the implications of other novel thresholds to be developed by ÉCLAIRE (i.e., WP11, WP12) and where possible incorporate these effects into thresholds and dose-response relationships for consideration at the European scale.
The first two objectives reflect the core activity with an emphasise on the development of robust, climate sensitive outcomes, while the third objective represents more exploratory novel considerations, and their implications for policy relevant messages.
Mapping at a European scale with low resolution models hides a substantial amount of subgrid variation, which may have significant policy consequences. The aims for this WP are to:
1. To establish common databases containing atmospheric concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds and nitrogen deposition data for the regional and landscape scales (from WP8)
2. To establish common databases containing current soil and vegetation data for the regional and landscape scales
3. To assess critical N thresholds and their exceedances at a range of grid resolutions from 5 x 5 km2 down to 50 x 50 m2 and evaluate the uncertainty in these values due to grid resolution, drawing on the results of modelling approaches in WP8, WP14, WP15.
Recent work on valuation in terms of impacts on ecosystems defined in terms of provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services, provides a route by which benefits of air pollution and climate policies in Europe can be quantified. While a full economic assessment will not be achievable, those elements that can be quantified in accordance with the latest science will be evaluated. The objectives of this work package are therefore:
1. To link the concept of ecosystem services with existing mapping of European ecosystems and pollutant impacts.
2. To characterise the links between pollutant exposure, impact and value to permit quantification of pollutant damage.
3. To assess change in the value of ecosystem services across different scenarios using a marginal approach to the extent possible.
4. To prioritise gaps in the existing knowledge base such that further research can be targeted on the parameters likely to have the greatest economic impact.
The work will require extensive linkage to Components 3 and 4
1. To operationalize novel critical thresholds (or comparable parameters) for the GAINS assessment of adverse effects of air pollution under climate change to geo-chemistry, plant species diversity and ecosystem services
2. To provide operational indicators for the assessment of scenario specific adverse effects [for policy support]
3. To analyse the robustness, the magnitudes and location of scenario specific adverse effects under climate change on a regional and European scale
1. To analyse climate scenarios and their impact on effects
2. To evaluate current strategies to minimize ecosystems effects of air pollution
3. To assess the impact of possible climate adaptation strategies on ecosystem responses
These objectives will be met based on input from Components 2 (chemistry-transport model), 3 and 4 (newly developed effect indicators and thresholds), and in close interaction with WP5.2 on GAINS implementation and WP5.1 on cost-benefit analysis.
The overall aim of this cross-cutting component is to ensure effective integration, communication, standardization, and management of data between the different Science Components of ÉCLAIRE, with the specific objectives:
1. To facilitate the selection and harmonisation of scenarios used throughout the project
2. To develop and implement common measurement protocols across all measurement activities within the project
3. To establish, document and implement common modelling protocols to ensure reliable and transparent model results
4. To establish and implement methods for assessing uncertainties in modelling
5. To ensure data quality and implement procedures for quality control
6. To set up a Data management Committee (DMC), consisting of a Data Manager for each of the ÉCLAIRE Science Components (C1 – C5), the ÉCLAIRE web portal manager, the consultancy services of the NERC(EDI) Informatics Liaison Team, the IP secretariat.
7. To produce a Data Policy and a comprehensive, working Data Management Plan.
8. To establish two Data Centres appropriate to (i) ÉCLAIRE Components 1-3, and (ii) ÉCLAIRE Components 4-5.
9. To establish a single data portal, to harmonize and make available spatial data and model output, and to provide easy, secure upload and data access facilities for the field and laboratory measurements.
1. To establish and operate the ÉCLAIRE project office
2. To provide scientific coordination of the project
3. To provide financial and administrative coordination of the project
4. To facilitate and ensure comprehensive, complete and timely reporting to the EC
5. To facilitate and organise an annual report for policymakers on progress with the ‘Objectives, Key Questions and Specific Questions’ of the project
6. To organise the General Assembly and other project meetings
7. To support the Executive Steering Committee and the Scientific Advisory Board
8. To oversee the appointment of a Gender Action Committee and its associated activities
This work package coordinates training activities across the ÉCLAIRE. Its objectives are to
1. To organise specialised training events for postgraduate students and young scientists with the aim to train participants in advanced measurement techniques and modelling methodologies,
2. To develop a plan for and organise, run and evaluate a summer school for young scientists from within ÉCLAIRE and related projects around the topic of air pollution effects on ecosystems under climate change conditions.
Most of the budget of this Work Package is reserved for travel and subsistence to support young scientist training activities, including attendence from outside the ÉCLAIRE consortium. A reserve budget is also included to be able to respond to developments during the life of the project. The seed activities listed here will be conducted in the context of other training instruments (e.g. Marie Curie, COST 0804, European Science Foundation) in order to maximize synergies and overall effectiveness.
1. To coordinate networking activities with other projects and international bodies
2. To facilitate dissemination activities across the project
3. To develop and maintain a project web portal for project internal and external communication